Review Article

Myopia control: current strategies

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Authors
1Moll Optik & Akustik - Kiel, Germany
2Wilhelminenhaus Kiel MVZ - Kiel, Germany
Keywords
Progressive myopia
myopia control
children
contact lenses
atropine
spectacle lenses
Abstract

Purpose:

The prevalence of myopia is increasing worldwide and its long-term effects can have major impacts on eye health. Paediatric onset of myopia leads to a higher risk for developing high levels of myopia in adulthood. Slowing down or stopping myopia progression is an important task for the future.

Material and Methods:

Based on a literature review, the latest developments in the field of myopia control for children were summarized. The current study situation for orthokeratology, soft contact lenses, atropine therapy and spectacle lenses for the management of myopia is discussed in detail.

Results:

Results on the safety and effectiveness of orthokeratology and modified soft contact lenses are exceedingly consistent. Soft multifocal contact lenses, as well as newer spectacle lenses, recently received regulatory approval for myopia control. Studies on the administration of atropine recommend a dosage of 0.01 - 0.05 %. All methods slow down myopia progression and decrease axial length growth of the eye. Side effects, adverse events or discontinuation of treatment only occur in the rarest of cases. Orthokeratology and atropine continue to deliver the best results.

Conclusion:

From today’s perspective, carrying out myopia control can be recommended with great certainty. The choice of method depends on the individual requirements of each patient, with all methods offering success in reducing myopia progression. In the future, even more advanced contact lens geometries, more precise atropine dosages or improved optics of spectacle lenses will further increase the success of the treatment. 

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