Review Article

Pathological myopia and the risk of structural complications with visual impairment

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myopic retinopathy
lacquer cracks
myopic macular degeneration (MMD)
myopic chorioretinal neovascularization(mCNV)


Pathological Myopie (PM) causes structural changes at the posterior segment of the eye that may lead to pathological changes including severe vision loss. The aim of this paper is to describe the pathologies most commonly associated with PM.

Material and Methods:

The literature review includes the current state of knowledge regarding the structural changes of the posterior segment due to PM, based on theoretical and methodological literature. The selected literature includes nine studies published in 2020–2021 as well as reports and assessments of public institutions. Publications by the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Council of Optometry (WCO), the International Myopia Institute (IMI) and the Brien Holden Vision Institute (BHVI) as well as cohort studies with children and adults from China, Singapore, Korea, Taiwan, Japan and Germany were taken into account.


Four eye diseases and their relationship to PM are explained and their pathological consequences described. Current therapies to improve the visual acuity in pathologies in the macula are presented.


PM often causes structural changes in the macular area. This leads to a significant loss of vision in those affected. Without treatment, PM can lead to blindness. In view of the increase in myopia and the number of myopes worldwide, it is important to sensitize the population to this topic.


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